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什么是同位语及其用法

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同位语是比较常见的一种语法现象。但在使用和理解方面有时会产生一定困难,下面就同位语的构成和用法作较系统归纳:

1.同位语可由名词、代词、-ing分词、动词不定式、形容词(或它们的短语),以及从句等构成。

同位语可分限制性同位语(restrictive)和非限制性同位语(nonrestrictive)。限制性同位语和它所说明的成分关系比较密切,不用逗号分开,语调上属同一意群。非限制性同位语则相反。

Thomas Jefferson,the third president of the United States,may be less fa- mous than George

Washington and Abraham Lincoln.(名词词组作 Thomas Jeffer- son同位语)美国第三任总统托马斯·杰斐逊也许不像乔治·华盛顿和亚伯拉罕·林肯那样著名。

Myra herself had got a medal for her work for the aged.(代词作同位语)迈拉自己由于悉心为老年人工作而获得一枚奖章。

His old dream of going round the world came back, but this time he would sail(介词of引出动名词作同位语)他周游世界的宿愿重又被唤起,不过这一次他是要驾船环游。

The next night,the blackest he had ever known,the sea became so rough that the boat almost turned over.(形容词短语作同位语)第二天夜晚——这是他所经历过的最黑暗的一个夜晚——海面上波涛汹涌,小船几乎被风浪掀翻。

The news that we are having a holiday tomorrow is not true.(从句作同位语。news,fact,rumor,hope,belief,thought,doubt等后可带有同位语从句。)我们明天放假的消息是不真实的。

I think I can see now the anxiety upon his face,the worried impatience.(名 词短语作非限制性同位语)我觉得现在我还能看到他脸上的优虑神情,那种担心而又焦急的神情。


2.名词、形容词、副词、动词、介词词组、分句等都可以带有自己的同位语

There was the family,father,mother,sisters,all working for me,allhappy.(名词family带同位语)爸妈姐妹们都在为我张罗着,全家都兴高采烈。

He became more thrifty—more attentive to the expenses of life—than he had been.(形容词thrifty带同位语)他比过去更为节俭,更注意生活开支。

Our English teacher often asks us to speak so—slowly, loudly and clearly.(副词so带同位语)我们的英语教师经常叫我们这样讲英语:慢慢地、大声地、清晰地讲。

The old lady always murmurs—that is,speaks in a very low voice.(动词murmurs带同位语)这位老太太总是小声说话,也就是说用很低的声音说话。

Most visitors reach Scotland from the south,that is,from England.(介词词组 from the south带同位语)大部分游客都从南部来到苏格兰,即都从英格兰来。

As long as there is an internal pressure,i.e.,so long as

the rocket burns itspropellent,it will continue to go faster and faster.(As long as引出的条件从句带同位语)只要有内压力,即只要火箭筒内的推进剂不断燃烧,它就会运行得越来越快。
3.同位语一般紧跟在其所说明的成分之后,但有时可以放在句子的前面(主语之前),尤其是主语为人称代词时,为平衡句子的节奏,则把同位语放置于此代词前。另外,thought,order,story等词带有同位语从同时,常和它所说明的成分分隔开来,这种情况一般在同位语从句是较长的一串词而句子的谓语动词很短时出现,目的是为了保持句子结构的平衡。例如:

A person of French origin,he is now an American citizen.(同位语放于主语he前)他的籍贯在法国,但他现在是美国公民。

The thought came to him that he should immediately leave the hotel.(同位语放在句后)一个念头出现在他脑际,他应立即离开酒店。

4.同位语可由逗号、破折号、冒号、连词or、本身无意义的of等引导;可由表示等同关系的 namely(或viz.),that is(或i.e.,ie), that is to say,in other words, for short,to wit,等;表示举例或列举的

for example,for in-

stance(或e.g.,eg)such as,say,let us say,including等;表示突出某点的especially,particularly,chiefly,mostly,mainly等等引导。同位语也可紧跟在其说明的同位语成分之后,不带任何引导词。例如:

The big fellow was Jim Thorpe, the greatest American athlete of moderntimes.(同位语由逗号引出)这位大个子就是现代美国最伟大的运动员吉姆·索普。

The train finally arrived and two young men——one big and broad,the othersmall and slight——stepped onto the platform.(破折号引出同位语)火车终于到站,两位年轻人——一位大个儿,体格魁梧;另一位,小个儿,长相瘦弱——踏上了月台。

They had been putting in place the tools of my new business: currycomb,brush,pitchfork.(冒号引出同位语)他们把干我这一新行当所需要的用具——马梳子、刷子、干草叉——安放得井井有条。

Professor Wang is an expert in linguistics,or the science of language.(or 引出同位语)王教授是位语言学——即语言科学——专家。

At first glance, the idea of an hour without TV seems radical.(or引出同位语)乍一看,停播一小时电视的想法似乎过于偏激。

He is a butcher—that is to say, a man who kills, cuts up, and sells ani-mals for food.( that is to say 引出同位语)他是位屠夫,就是说,以屠宰动物卖肉为生的人。

Certainly there are many worthwhile programs on television,including news,educational programs for children, programs on current social

problems,plays,movies,concerts, and so on.(including引出同位语)的确,电视里是有很多值得一看的节目,包括新闻、儿童教育节目、讨论当前社会问题的节目、戏剧、电影、音乐会等等。

Most people in our company,particularly Tom and Jane, are good at danc- ing.(particularly引出同位语)我们公司的大部分员工,尤其是汤姆和简,都很会跳舞。
 

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关键词: 同位语
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